Population explosion is a big problem in all Asian countries which especially have a tropical climate. However they have been still lacking of the knowledge of urban architecture which suits their hot and humid tropical climate. There are only about 2.5% of city dwellers who really care about their living space and green space. 90% of children from 2 months to 13 years old are suffered from respiratory illness and infectious diseases in Vietnam.
Ho Chi Minh City loses 50% of green space in 11 years. This story illustrates the rapid rate of urbanization in Asia, the importance of green space as a health issue, and the difficulties of balancing urban development and human health.
Under the pressure of urbanization, population development and the waves of the modernization are taking place in Vietnam in general and Ho Chi Minh city in particular. Those results are a great impact on the architecture and life style of the people. There are many type of residential architecture were born in accordance with the current situation. However, some traditional house and some type of housing in subsidy period still remain till now to support the using of habitants. In Ho Chi Minh city, they can be classified into some styles base on the difference of historical periods, culture period and economy. From that, it can be seen the transformation of building methods effect by economy changing and fluctuation history. In addition, finding the advantage and disadvantage of housing situation in Ho Chi Minh is the condition to understand and bring out the right solutions.
- Tube house: It can be call with other names of shop house or town house. In the integrated field of architecture and urbanism, there are several confusing term relating to similar dwelling forms. The comparison between three of them should be: tube house: mainly indicate the particular physical tube form of the house Shop house: mainly indicates the dominant commercial function of the house. Street house: mainly indicates the interrelation between the house and its environment (the street). So the house can be called different ways. However this kind of house has the character of narrow width, large length and it must be much longer than the width; the height with two floors or more. First floor use as a commercial place and the rest of space for living. This type of housing can be considered as the transition from the traditional shop house to mordent house with the changing of material, wooden structure. Lack of the management, this house is build without any standard with different heights, floors and forms; suitable offset and material combine with the different advertisement panels. All these things create a complicated façade and reducing the quality of housing and living environment.
2. Independent house with garden (or it can be known as: urban housing for exclusive residential type) is a single house a private garden, from one to five floors, entirely independent of the surrounding. This kind of house is usually built in large grounds depending on the household; most kinds of this house are built in a new planning area. With the good condition of site size, it has many advantages for the owner to build a good house. However, beside the good solution of some house, lack of knowledge for an adaptive climate design strategies, some houses are also staying in bad situation with low living quality.
3. Row tube house (it can be called row shop house or row street house) is a type of adjacent houses, built in the side of the roads, in commercial areas and services in accordance with the approved plans. Beside the living function, it also can be use as shops, office services, hostels, hotels, small manufacturing facilities, etc…
4. Row villa house with garden: is a type of adjacent house with front yard and back yard. It belongs to the area of the house which fixing size area or depend on each planning zone.
5. Apartment: Since the state law of 1990, the Khu Tap The is called with a new name: the apartment. Condominium closed sub-zones, with each cluster associated with a combination of public works and services, schools, hospitals.
Currently, when most of cities have not been renovated and unplanned, spontaneous construction with many model leads to a complicated urban, poor quality. In addition the errors in design lead to the low using efficiency and high cost of much energy. Besides, so far, many areas have planned with new indicators which create a healthier and more quality with energy saving, advantaged microclimate and the improvements of surrounding environment such as green space and open space. Our mission is to point out a general comparison especially the organization of residential area layout among a number of traditional residential areas as well as new area to find out the advantages and benefits of new and old design. It also points out the negative and unsuitable as a prerequisite for the study of the more profitable strategies which used our tropical
climate for a good quality of life, comforts and maximum energy savings.